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Integrative Literature on Transitions Theory
Alteration regarding the health as well as illness of a person results to the process of transition. Individuals who are in a transition are likely to be more susceptible to the dangers that may ultimately affect their health status (Meleis et al., 2000). This paper is an integrative literature review that looks at the 10 studies related to transitional theory.
The studies that are included in this literature review were majorly acknowledged through the application of the computerized literature search of the CINAHL as well as MEDLINE databases. The key words of the search comprised transitions, theory and nursing. In addition, hand searching was undertaken to ensure that the studies that were selected comprised only nursing studies and were actual single studies instead of the reviews. Though date restrictions were not used, the search of this literature was narrowed down to empirical investigations in population. Due to the study’s wide scope, the study search resulted to 42 studies from 1988 to 2016 that met the given standards. The 42 studies were a mixture of both the illness as well as population. In this literature review, 10 studies were selected based on the specific focus of the study i.e. the population.
A study was undertaken by Forss et al (2004) on women’s experiences regarding changes of cervical cellular. The main aim was to look at the meaning of the women participants who had the experience of getting notification about anomalous Pap smear outcome. The findings of this study were based on unintentional transition from health conformation to the liminality. It is vital to note that even uncomplicated technology is indicated to have a dimension of ontology, with the capability to transform daily granted issues of ourselves as chiefly healthy to unhealthy.
A research was done by Arman & Rehnsfeldt (2003) on the hidden suffering among the breast cancer patients. The main objective of this research was to have a clear understanding regarding the distribution of lived experience of breast well as suffering in the nursing care setting. From this study, the frequent reports of changing course referred by numerous names, including transition, transformation as well as finding the meaning were found as paths where an individual regained integrity as well as wholeness years after a spiral movement. There is a suggestion by Arman & Rehnsfeldt (2003) to the change course connected with the breast cancer as a mean of transition or transformation entailing a search for an implication as an individual travelled a pathway that had an aim of regaining “integrity” as well as ‘wholeness’. The study also views transition as a process that comprises disruption in close connections as well as daily living.
Another study was done by Bridges (2004) on how transitions make sense of life’s changes. The aim of the study was to find out how the term transition has been applied in the healthcare literature. This study found out that there is alteration of transition based on the discipline but there is an agreement that transition comprises individuals’ reaction during the passage of change. Transition entails change as well as adaptation since it happen over time, for instance personal, environmental or situational, but not all changes that entail transition. This study by Bridges (2004) concludes that transition is the manner in which individuals respond to change over a given duration. To nursing, transition is a significant concept that needs the research to go beyond single response.
Kralik et al. (2003) looked at the transition in sexual identity regarding women having numerous sclerosis. The main objective of the study was to outline the comprehension of sexuality construction and the impact of changing the women body having numerous sclerosis. The study found out that exploration regarding the experiences of illness aids in understanding that the bodies are the vehicles of self sense as well as identity. Facilitating women regarding the available choices of awareness so that to sustain the self, may expedite transition towards ordinariness in order infection to become an aspect of life.
Skarsater et al (2003) studied conceptions of women in coping with main life depression. The experience regarding a stern infection such as depression affects all facets of a person’s life comprising family and social functioning. Thus, this study’s objective was to illustrate the conceptions of women with main depression with the aid of profession as well as lay support. The study included 10 women who had hospitalized previously with a major depression. While they were working their way out of depression, they were required to undergo a transition process, comprising both cognitive as well as emotional comprehension that ultimately translated into actions connected with health.
A study by Hilton (2002) looked at the meaning of stroke in old women. Through the application of the qualitative design, a sample of six old women in a residential setting was studied. Data were obtained through the use of interview and manen thematic analysis was used. This study identified an overarching transition theme with stroke transformation. The study concludes that understanding the stroke experience aid the nurses to perceive the survivors of stroke with broader perspective enabling responsive care.
A study by Kralik (2002) looked at the transition experienced by midline women having chronic infection. The main aim of the paper is to elucidate the understanding of midlife women’s knowledge when having chronic illness. The research design involved construction of “transition” in chronic infection experience evolved from collaborative study with midlife women during the start of chronic infection. Transition in the experience of chronic infection comprised movement from extraordinariness to ordinariness in nonlinear process.
A study by Elmberger et al. (2002) investigated men having cancer i.e. the changes in trials of mastering the self-image as a man as well as a patient. The main objective of the study was to have an understanding regarding changes in these men’s daily lives. The study applied an integrative descriptive design, using the transition concept as a core structure. The study recruited nine men with diverse of blood cancer as well as children living at home. Through the process of interpretative, there was generation of the main theme of change in self image as a man and as a parent. It is vital to note that comprised of subthemes gaining control, emotional balance, subjective wellbeing as well as difficulties in family life. The process of transition was influenced the time after diagnosis. The author of this study proposes that the process of transition has a start as well as an end.
A study by Fraser (1999) looked at the transition experience regarding daughter caregiver of survivor of stroke. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the experience of daughter caregiver on transition. To understand as well as study the experience of transition, this study applied a longitudinal case study of a woman. It should be noted that transition is a process that comprised disruptions in close connections as well as daily living. In the study, the chaos pattern exemplified the transition process.
A study by Neil & Barrell (1998) looked at the transition theory and its applicability to the patients having chronic wounds. The study indicates that individuals with chronic wounds tend to have both psychological as well as emotional difficulties. Therefore, the Selder’s transitional theory fits with investigation on body image as well as its damage as a result of chronic wounds. The data of this research was obtained through interviewing eight patients having chronic wounds. The emerging themes from the interview were contrasted with the Selder’s theory to illustrate the experience of the patients having chronic wounds as a process of transition that can be recognized with the healthcare providers.
In conclusion, merging comprehension from the reviewed literature as well as the theoretical frameworks indicates that the process of transition happens when there are changes regarding the circumstances of life or relationships. It is vital to note that crises of life and experiences of loss may result to change or adaptation. In addition, there is a close relationship between the idea of transition and self identity. The significance of the relationships was identified in this literature review whereby they were seen as an integral element in a successful process of transition. Also, the authors of this study concur that it is vital for the nurses to have a good understanding regarding the process of transition so that to aid individuals in moving through it.
Arman M. & Rehnsfeldt A. (2003) The hidden suffering among breast cancer patients: a qualitative metasynthesis. Qualitative Health Research 13(4), 510–527
Bridges W. (2004) Transitions: Making Sense of Life’s Changes. Da Capo Press, Cambridge, MA.
Elmberger E., Bolund C. & Lutzen K. (2002) Men with cancer: changes in attempts to master the self-image as a man and as a parent. Cancer Nursing 25(6), 477–485.
Fraser C. (1999) The experience of transition for a daughter caregiver of a stroke survivor. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 31(1), 9–16.
Forss A., Tishelman C., Widmark C. & Sachs L. (2004) Women’s experiences of cervical cellular changes: an unintentional transition from health to liminality. Sociology of Health and Illness 26(3), 306–325.
Hilton E. (2002) The meaning of stroke in elderly women: a phenomenological investigation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 28(7), 19–26.
Kralik D. (2002) The quest for ordinariness: transition experienced by midlife women living with chronic illness. Journal of Advanced Nursing 39(2), 146–154.
Kralik D., Koch T. & Eastwood S. (2003) The salience of the body: transition in sexual self-identity for women living with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Advanced Nursing 42(1), 11–20.
Meleis, A. I., Sawyer, L. M., Im, E. O., Messias, D. K. H., & Schumacher, K. (2000). Experiencing transitions: An emerging middle-range theory. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(1), 12-28. (eReserve)
Neil J. & Barrell L. (1998) Transition theory and its relevance to patients with chronic wounds. Rehabilitation Nursing 23(6), 295–299.
Skarsater I., Dencker K., Bergbom I., Haggstrom L. & Fridlund B. (2003) Women’s conceptions of coping with major depression in daily life: a qualitative, salutogenic approach. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 24, 419–439.
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